The corresponding Hebrew letter to this chapter is Vav-hook; redemption and transformation. It stands for man created on the sixth day, etc.
Sh'mot 28:1-2 "Then bring near to yourself Aharon your brother, and his sons with him, from among the sons of Israel, to minister as priest to Me-- Aharon, Nadav and Avihu, El'azar and Itamar, Aharon's sons. And you shall make holy garments for Aharon your brother, for glory and for beauty.
They were to be set apart. They were to be consecrated to HaShem.
The High Priest was clothed for glory and beauty.
Sh'mot 28:3-5 And you shall speak to all the skillful persons whom I have endowed with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aharon's garments to consecrate him, that he may minister as "priest to Me". And these are the garments which they shall make: a breastpiece and an ephod and a robe and a tunic of checkered work, a turban and a sash, and they shall make holy garments for Aharon your brother and his sons, that he may minister as priest to Me. And they shall take the gold and the blue and the purple and the scarlet material and the fine linen.
The fact that they were consecrated to HaShem did not mean they did not also serve the people.
The gold represents Yeshua's deity, who is our ultimate High Priest above. The gold also points to purity. The High Priest had to make sure his life was right with HaShem. Yeshua was ultimate perfection in the flesh and was totally sinless. His relationship with the Father was unique in that sin had never come between them. The only sin that finally did come between them and caused the Father to turn His back on the Son was when He took on our sin.
Hebrews 9:11-14 But when Messiah appeared as a High Priest (cohen gadol) of the "good things" to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation; and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Messiah, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself "WITHOUT" blemish to G-d, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living G-d?
Sh'mot 28:6-8 "They shall also make the ephod of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen, the work of the skillful workman. It shall have two shoulder pieces joined to its two ends, that it may be joined. And the skillfully woven band, which is on it, shall be like its workmanship, of the same material: of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet material and fine twisted linen.
The purple signified a royal priesthood. When we accept Yeshua as our Messiah and High Priest we too become a royal priesthood regardless of what nation we have come from.
1 Kefa (Peter) 2:9-10 But you are a chosen race, a "Royal" priesthood, a holy nation, a people for G-d's own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; for you once were not a people, but now you are the people of G-d; you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.
Sh'mot 28:9-14 And you shall take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, according to their birth. As a jeweler engraves a signet, you shall engrave the two stones according to the names of the sons of Israel; you shall set them in filigree settings of gold. And you shall put the two stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, as stones of memorial for the sons of Israel, and Aharon shall bear their names before the L-RD on his two shoulders for a memorial. And you shall make filigree settings of gold, and two chains of pure gold; you shall make them of twisted cordage work, and you shall put the corded chains on the filigree settings.
The sages say that HaShem would look down from Heaven and see the names of the 12 tribes of Israel on Aharon's shoulders and he would be moved with compassion and have mercy on them.