B'resheet (Genesis) Chapter 14

B'resheet 14:1 And it came about in the days of Amrafel (Amraphel) king of Shinar, Aryokh (Arioch) king of Elasar (Ellasar), K'dorla'omer (Chedorlaomer) king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goyim (Goiim),

Amrafel (Amraphel) king of Shinar

The land of Shinar - Ancient Babylon - Modern day southern Iraq.

Some scholars identified Amraphel with Hammurabi, others feel that they lived in two different time periods.

Aryokh (Arioch) king of Ellasar

Ellasar was also apart of southern Babylon. Modern day southern Iraq

K'dorla'omer (Chedorlaomer) king of Elam

Elam is a mountain region near the head of the Persian Gulf. - The very southern part of Iran and Kuwait.

Chedorlaomer - His name was Kudur-Lagamer which means "servant of Lagamer," one of Elam's gods.

The capital of Elam was Susa. He appears to be the leader of these 4 kings.

Tidal king of Goyim - Goyim (Nations, People, Gentiles). Tidal appears to be the leader of a group or groups of unidentified people.

B'resheet 14:2-3 that they made war with Bera king of S'dom (Sodom), and with Birsha king of 'Amora (Gomorrah), Shin'av (Shinab) king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Tzvoyim (Zeboiim), and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar). All these came as allies to the valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).

Bera king of S'dom (Sodom)

Birsha king of Amora (Gomorrah)

Shinab king of Admah

Shemeber king of Zeboiim

king of Bela (that is, (Tzo'ar) Zoar)

It seems that the various cites each had their own king. Today in some of the Arab countries we see the same thing, there are many who hold the title of Emir or Sheik.

These cities were near the south end of the Dead Sea. At that time it was a very fertile area. This is why Lot chose to move there.

The valley of Siddim - Near the salt sea (dead sea)

B'resheet 14:4-9 Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but the thirteenth year they rebelled. And in the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, came and defeated the Rephaim in Asht'rot-Karnayim (Ashteroth-karnaim) and the Zuzim in Ham and the Emim in Shaveh-Kiryatayim (Shaveh-kiriathaim), and the Horites in their Mount Seir, as far as El-paran, which is by the wilderness. Then they turned back and came to En-mishpat (that is, Kadesh), and conquered all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, who lived in Hazazon-tamar. And the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) came out; and they arrayed for battle against them in the valley of Siddim, against Chedorlaomer king of Elam and Tidal king of Goiim and Amraphel king of Shinar and Arioch king of Ellasar-- four kings against five.

They had served - This is referring to the 5 kings. They served K'dorla'omer (Chedorlaomer) for 12 years.

On their way to west the 4 kings battled a number of people.

The Rephaim - a race of Giants

Deut 3:11 (Only Og king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaites. His bed was made of iron and was more than thirteen feet long and six feet wide. It is still in Rabbah of the Ammonites.)

The Zuzim in Ham - They are identified as the Zamzummim another group of Giants. They were over run by the Ammonites (Descendants of Lot). The Ammonites where located where modern day Amman, Jordan is now located.

Deut 2:20-21 (It is also regarded as the land of the Rephaim, for Rephaim formerly lived in it, but the Ammonites call them Zamzummin, a people as great, numerous, and tall as the Anakim, but the L-RD destroyed them before them. And they dispossessed them and settled in their place,

The Emim - another group of Giants who were later displaced by the Moabites. The Moabites were also descendants of Lot. They also lived in Jordan south of Ammon. Rut (Ruth) was from Moab.

Deut 2:10-11 (The Emim lived there formerly, a people as great, numerous, and tall as the Anakim. Like the Anakim, they are also regarded as Rephaim, but the Moabites call them Emim.

The Horites in their Mount Seir - They were also located in Jordan later destroyed by the Edomites (descendants of Esau). Edom is south of the Moab region in Jordan. This is where Petra is located.

Deut 2:22 just as He did for the sons of Esau, who live in Seir, when He destroyed the Horites from before them; and they dispossessed them, and settled in their place even to this day.

The Amalekites - They lived in several areas through out the years, at this time they seem to be near the Dead Sea.

The Amorites - Descendants of the Canaanites. Their land was given to Israel by G-d.

Deut 7:1-2 "When the L-RD your G-d shall bring you into the land where you are entering to possess it, and shall clear away many nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and stronger than you, and when the L-RD your G-d shall deliver them before you, and you shall defeat them, then you shall utterly destroy them.