John Chapter 18

The Eighteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet is Tzaddi meaning righteousness.

John 18:1-3 When Yeshua (Jesus) had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron (Kidron) where was a garden, which He entered into, and His disciples. And Judas also, which betrayed Him, knew the place: for Yeshua (Jesus) oftentimes resorted there with His disciples. Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns and torches and weapons.

“Brook” signifies that this was an intermittent stream that was dry most of the year. It ran through the Kidron valley, which is between the Mt of Olives and the Temple Mount. There were many gardens on the Mt of Olives; Yeshua went to a particular one called “Gethsemane” which means, “Oil press”. There are olive trees in the garden of Gethsemane today that are believed to be about 2,000 years old. They may have been there at the time of Yeshua.

The wording “He entered…” suggests that the garden had a wall around it.

“A band of men” refers to a cohort of Roman troops. This could have been as many as 1,000 men or as little of 200 men! Even if it was only 200 men that is still quite a large number of soldiers to capture one individual.

John 18:4 Yeshua (Jesus) therefore, knowing all things that should come on Him, went forth, and said to them, Whom do you seek?

“Knowing all things,” this tells us that Yeshua is omniscient. Only G-d is omniscient.

John 18:5 They answered Him, Yeshua (Jesus) the Nazarene.

John 18:6 Yeshua said to them,” I AM!” and Judas, the (one) betraying Him, also stood with them. Then when He said to them, I AM, they went away into the rear and fell to earth.

At the name of YHVH “I AM” they fell backward. This shows the power of the name of G-d. Yeshua was revealing His deity to them. Imagine a group of Roman soldiers falling on the ground at the spoken word of Yeshua.

Just like the Philistines god Dagon fell before the ark. (See 1 Samuel 5)

John 18:7-9 Yeshua asked them a second time, emphasizing that He was the only one that they were there to arrest and the others should be free to go.

John 18:10-11 Then Shim’on Kefa (Simon Peter) having a sword drew it, and struck the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Melekh (Malchus). Then said Yeshua (Jesus) to Peter, Put away your sword into the sheath: the cup, which my Father has given Me, should, I not drink it?

Peter wanted to start the earthly political Kingdom of Messiah at his timing not the timing of YHVH.

The “cup” in the Tanakh is associated with suffering and especially judgment.

The will of the Father and Yeshua. The Father and the Word (Yeshua) are One.

John 18:12-14 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Yeshua (Jesus), and bound Him, And led Him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Kayafa (Caiaphas), which was the high priest that same year. Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

Just because it was man’s will does not mean it was not also the will of the Father. (See Ch. 19) Annas was at one time the High Priest and was removed from office by the Romans, five of his sons and his son in law served at one time or another as the High Priest.

Earthly High Priest said Yeshua would Perish on behalf of the people. The older transcripts and some of the old sages certainly knew that certain verses in the Psalms (Tehillim) referred to a suffering Messiah.

For example in Psalms 22 the Hebrew word which translates “pierced” is the word “karv”, and was certainly the word those ancient scholars translated. (Also check Yakult Shimoni (#687) and Talmud, Sanhedrin 93b and 98b) and Midrash Pesikta Rabbat (Piska chapter 36 and 37) These parallel Psalm 22 and Ancient rabbis also claimed Isaiah 53 was indeed believed to be the Messiah. (This is seen in the Targum of Isaiah translated in first and second century B.C.E, also see Rabbi Moshe el Sheikh, in “Commentaries of the Earlier Prophets”)

It was not until the eleventh century that the passage of Isaiah 53 was used as a reference to Israel.

The thing is the suffering servant was without sin in the this verse:

Isaiah 53:9 And He made His grave with the wicked, and with the rich in His death; because He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in His mouth.

As we have already mentioned from Scripture itself Israel has an admittedly sinful past.

Another thing is it states the Messiah’s willingness to suffer. Was Israel ever willing to suffer?

Another thought: Could Israel suffer for the sins of others?

Only a High Priest’s life was used to offer atonement for the people; therefore, Yeshua our High Priest’s death was used for atonement. He presented Himself to the Father above.

John 18:15-16 Shim’on Kefa (Peter) and another disciple followed Yeshua. The other disciple was probably John the author of this book.

John 18:17 Then said the servant girl that kept the door to Peter, “Are you not also one of this man's disciples?” He said “I am not.”

This is the first denial by Peter. Peter was not willing to suffer yet. All men of G-d made mistakes except Yeshua.

John 18:18-24 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. The high priest then asked Yeshua (Jesus) of His disciples, and of His doctrine. Yeshua (Jesus) answered him, I spoke openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, where the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. Why ask me? Ask them which heard Me, what I have said to them: behold, they know what I said. And when He had spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Yeshua (Jesus) with the palm of his hand, saying, “Do you answer the high priest so?” Yeshua (Jesus) answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why do you hit me? Now Annas had sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

In a formal Jewish court it may have been illegal to question the defendant because a case had to rest on the testimony of witnesses. Yeshua, knowing the law, was requesting that witnesses be brought forth. The officer who stuck Yeshua knew that He was rebuking Annas and retaliated.