Matthew Chapters 12-17 corresponds to the Scroll (Book) of Vayikra (Leviticus). The law of the Sabbath is in:
Leviticus 23:3 Six days will work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, a holy convocation. You will do no work on it; it is the Sabbath of the L-RD in all your dwellings.
The twelfth letter is Lamed - teaching and learning. The letter is higher than all the others and therefore symbolizes the King of Kings.
Matthew 12:1-2 At that time (Yeshua) Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were hungry, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, Behold, your disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the Sabbath day.
The Torah did not prohibit plucking a few handfuls of grain in order to eat. What it prohibits is spending the day harvesting for profit.
Deuteronomy 23:25 When you come into the standing corn of your neighbor, then you may pluck the ears with your hand; but you will not move a sickle on your neighbor’s standing corn.
If only the Pharisees had realized whom they were talking to and where willing to look further into the matter. Yeshua was not only the Messiah but also more.
Eating the grain was a matter of Necessity. (See also Mark 2:27)
Matthew 12:3-4 But He said to them, Have you not read what David did, when he was hungry, and they that were with him; How he entered into the house of G-d, and did eat the showbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?
1 Samuel 21:1-6 Now David came to Nob, to Ahimelech(Achimelekh) the priest(cohen). And Ahimelech was afraid when he met David, and said to him, "Why are you alone, and no one is with you?" So David said to Ahimelech the priest, "The king has ordered me on some business, and said to me, 'Do not let anyone know anything about the business on which I send you, or what I have commanded you.' And I have directed my young men to such and such a place. Now therefore, what have you on hand? Give me five loaves of bread in my hand, or whatever can be found." And the priest answered David and said, "There is no common bread on hand; but there is holy bread, if the young men have at least kept themselves from women." Then David answered the priest, and said to him, "Truly, women have been kept from us about three days since I came out. And the vessels of the young men are holy, and the bread is in effect common, even though it was sanctified in the vessel this day." So the priest gave him holy bread; for there was no bread there but the showbread which had been taken from before the L-RD, in order to put hot bread in its place on the day when it was taken away.
The Sabbath Law did not restrict deeds of necessity, service to G-d, or acts of Mercy. The Sabbath was not intended to be a yoke of bondage to the people. It was created for mans benefit.
1) This is an example of Necessity - David did not take the showbread off of the table in the Holy Place and eat it. Once a week the old bread was replaced by the Priests with new fresh bread and the Priests would eat the old bread. It was the old bread that David and his men ate out of necessity.
For more information on the table of showbread.
Yeshua is our High Priest above. We should worship the Torah GIVER. Yeshua is One with the Father. Yeshua will be worshipped and rule all nations. (Rev. 1:5-6,5:8; 5:12;Psalm 2:7-12) The angels will worship Him. (Hebrews 1:6) Every creature. (Rev. 5:13) Any nation that does not serve Him during His future reign will suffer consequences. (Isaiah 60:12)
2) Yeshua gives and example of Service to G-d in verses 5 and 6.
Matthew 12:5 Or have you not read in the law (Torah), how that on the Sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are blameless?
The Priests had to work in the temple on the Sabbath day. This was necessary and was not a case of breaking the Sabbath.
Superior Instruction - Temple service (Lev. 24:5-9) He was also trying to tell others how G-d can indwell us and we can become His temple!!!
Matthew 12:6 But I say to you, that in this place is one greater than the temple.
Who is GREATER than the temple? G-d humbled Himself to come down as a righteous man to be our deliver from our sin. This was the reason He came in the flesh. He walked and talked with His people. Who was the temple for?
All the things in the Temple point to Him. These men missed a great opportunity to know Him.
Matthew 12:7 But if you had known what this means, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice; you would not have condemned the guiltless.
Hosea 6:6 For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of G-d more than burnt offerings.
Again read it - the moral standards over the ceremonial.
Matthew 12:8 For the Son of man is L-rd of the Sabbath day.
Do you understand the total meaning of this? Here we have an Outward Claim of Deity. We should never be more concerned with the temple (which was a means of worship) more than the ONE we worship.
It is still good for man to rest. We went over some of the higher meaning of this in the last chapter. He is our rest. He had the authority to rule over the Sabbath. Yeshua will also reign in and rule during the Seventh 1,000 year of man. He will not only reign in Israel but He will also rule the whole world!!
WE can truly trust rest in the mercy Yeshua has brought to man.
There were many man-made Sabbath rules, which Yeshua had the prerogative to rule over and over rule. He also was over the Sabbath itself. He is G-d.
Matthew 12:9-11 And when He was departed from there, He went into their synagogue: And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked Him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath days? that they might accuse Him. And He said to them, What man will there be among you, that will have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the Sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out?
This is an example of an act of mercy.
Matthew 12:12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath days.
It is always lawful to do good.
Matthew 12:13-16 Then He said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And he stretched it out; and it was restored whole, like as the other. Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against Him, how they might destroy Him. But when Yeshua (Jesus) knew it, He withdrew Himself from there: and great multitudes followed Him, and He healed them all; And charged them that they should not make Him known:
He healed them all - During the Tanakh there was never such a display healing power. Yeshua demonstrated His deity by healing those around Him, raising the dead, and casting out demons. He also gave spiritual healing to those that believe. This showed He had power over the physical as well as spiritual world.
Matthew 12:17-21 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying, Behold My servant, whom I have chosen; My beloved, in whom My soul is well pleased: I will put My spirit on Him, and He will show judgment to the Gentiles. He will not strive, nor cry; neither will any man hear His voice in the streets. A bruised reed will He not break, and smoking flax will He not quench, till He send forth judgment to victory. And in His name will the Gentiles trust.
This was a fulfillment of a prophecy of Isaiah.
Isaiah 42:1-4 Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delights; I have put My spirit on Him: He will bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. He will not cry, nor lift up, nor cause His voice to be heard in the street. A bruised reed will He not break, and the smoking flax will He not quench: He will bring forth judgment unto truth. He will not fail nor be discouraged, till He have set judgment in the earth: and the isles will wait for His law. (Gen. 49:10)
A bruised reed will He not break, and the smoking flax will He not quench - They represented those people who would have been considered useless by the world. Yeshua did not come to bring a political revolution, but to show mercy to the weak.
Many people of this time period expected the Messiah to arrive with a political agenda. Isaiah predicted that He would bring righteousness even to the Gentiles.