Matt 5:1 And seeing the multitudes, He went up into a mountain: and when He was seated, His disciples came to Him:
He is talking to Israel.
It was the custom of Rabbi’s to teach while seated.
The corresponding fifth letter of the Hebrew aleph-bet is “Hay” refers to breath; spirit of G-d; Divinity -Interestingly the letter teaches to combine the physical with the spiritual with sanctity. Earth is considered a small portion of G-d’s creation.
The letter “Hay” symbolizes G-d’s readiness to forgive through repentance (teshuvah). The letter also reflects G-d’s attribute of kindness (Chessed) he treats a humble individual.
In Genesis G-d cared for Adam despite his intentional act of sin against the one thing he was told not to. He still however continued to call for Adam and converse with him.
The letter “Hay” was also applied to the Holy Ark -Implies visual sign of G-d’s special guidance.
Exodus 13:21 And the L-RD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:
Matt 5:2 And He opened His mouth, and taught them, saying,
Matt 5:3 Blessed (happy) are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the KINGDOM of HEAVEN.
He is talking about those of the Kingdom of Heaven. (Other world)
the "poor in spirit" (ptochos) the first, describes one's spiritual helpless state. We declared our spiritual need for the grace and mercy from Yeshua.
Five is the number of grace. We declare our need for the grace and mercy of G-d.
Job 33:27-28 He declares before everyone, I sinned, and perverted that which was right, and it profited me not; G-d redeemed me from going into the pit, and his life will see the light.
"Blessed" also mean "fully satisfied". This satisfaction comes due to Yeshua's indwelling.
When one is indwelt by G-d, and G-d's nature is in him, he has the kingdom of G-d within him. (Lk. 17:21) In a sense Yeshua is the kingdom.
Matt 5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they will be comforted.
"Those who mourn”. hoi penthountes, sorrow for one's sin + sins of others. (Passive attitude)
Matt 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they will inherit the earth.
Psalms 37:11 But the meek will inherit the earth; and will delight themselves in the abundance of shalom (peace).
"gentle” - The soft-sounding letter Hay indicates the feminine form of noun as in boy; girl. The Torah uses one letter “Hay” to illustrate the characteristics of a woman: “gentleness”
Meekness is not weakness. It is the opposite of being out of control. It is self control empowered by Ruach HaKodesh (The Holy Spirit).
Matt 5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they will be filled.
"Those who hunger" (Hoi peinontes) "the hungering ones", constant and satisfied with G-d's righteousness.
This is opposite the self-righteousness many adopt in an attempt to gain favor with G-d.
Matt 5:7 Blessed are the merciful: for they will obtain mercy.
"mercifulness", (eleos) Showing mercy to others, Only G-d can effect grace but we are to show mercy and be "merciful" to others.
Matt 5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they will see G-d.
Not only will we see G-d through eyes of faith, someday we will see Him face to face.
Matt 5:9 Blessed are the peacemakers: for they will be called the children of G-d.
"Peacemaker", is not to fight and to try to be peaceful with others. Also implies taking the shalom (peace) of G-d (His Son) to others.
Matt 5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the KINGDOM of HEAVEN.
"Persecuted for the sake of righteousness" causes a person to reach the highest calling of blessedness.
Matt 5:11 Blessed are you, when men will revile you, and persecute you, and will say all manner of evil against you falsely, on the “ACCOUNT OF ME.”
The sermon has to be taken as a whole as the basis of the last phrase in verse 11, "on account of me." The L-rd said to His disciples, "blessed are you.........on the account of Me."
Matt 5:12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
This includes Zechariah.
Believers in Yeshua, both Jewish and Gentile, will be persecuted for their beliefs in Yeshua and for following Yeshua. We are to expect it to happen and not to be discouraged. G-d sees when we are persecuted because of Him and will reward us when we get to heaven.
Matt 5:13 You are the salt of the earth: but if the salt loses its flavor, wherewith will it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.
Salt is used to preserve. Israel was told to preserve from evil. All that followed Yeshua HaMashiach where salt of the earth and followed after Him and His example. He told them to declare it to the world. The Gentiles also learned of the gospel and later started to follow Him.
Higher level of understanding:
The gospel applied as salt-gives us new covenant power to keep us from being corrupted from sin. As Salt was used to purify the sacrifice to make it acceptable, so the gospel brings us Ruach HaKodesh so we offer ourselves as living sacrifices.
B’midbar (Numbers) 18:19-20 All the offerings of the holy gifts, which the sons of Israel offer to the L-RD, I have given to you and your sons and your daughters with you, as a perpetual allotment. It is an everlasting covenant of salt before the L-RD to you and your descendants with you."
Salt represented an everlasting and incorruptible covenant.
Matt 5:14 You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
We are to walk in purity not piety. If we do not associate with anyone outside of other believers and set our self apart to extreme and do not associate with those in the world and with those that are lost we cannot be a light to them. Our light will be shut up and hid.
Matt 5:15-16 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it gives light to all that are in the house. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father, which is in heaven.
This does not mean being pious with our works or one upping others or thinking oneself better than others because of our purity.
Matt 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.
the law, or the prophets - this refers to the entirety of all of the Tanakh scriptures.
When believers in Yeshua quote Matt. 5:17, they are saying that Yeshua did not sin. (Without blemish) Also, that He fulfilled the Messianic prophecies concerning His first coming. His actions also fulfilled the design of the Torah. The Torah is not abolished or replaced by the New Covenant.
Yeshua was the fulfillment of the law in all of its aspects. He fulfilled the moral law (instructions) by keeping all of it perfectly without breaking it once. He loved with a perfection that is without fault -Not any of us are without some fault. He fulfilled the ceremonial law by being the embodiment of everything the law’s types and symbols pointed to. He fulfilled the judicial law by personifying G-d’s perfect justice.
Yeshua, being Jewish, "as concerning the flesh" observed every commandment G-d gave to the children of Israel.
Romans 11:4-5 But what does the divine response say to him? "I have reserved for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal." Even so then, at this present time there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
Matt 5:18 For verily I say to you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle will in no wise pass from the law (instruction), till all be fulfilled.
A “jot” refers to the smallest Hebrew letter “Yod” which is a meager stroke of the pen. The “tittle” is a tiny extension on a Hebrew letter.
Matt 5:19 Whosoever therefore will break one of these least commandments, and will teach men so, he will be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever will do and teach them, the same will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
Under the new covenant we are on a higher plain but that does not mean we tell others to do wrong. The commandments are still a good guideline. Love cannot however by stagnantly defined. The Spirit guides us in all our ways.
Keep following Yeshua. By following Yeshua one is following the will of the Father. Keep seeking the things above, where Yeshua (Jesus) is seated at the right hand of G-d. For you have died and your life is hidden with Yeshua (Jesus)
renewed in knowledge (to a true knowledge) after the image of Him that created Him; where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcised nor uncircumcised, Barbarian, Scythian, bond, nor free, but Messiah (Christ) is all, and in all.- (a renewal in which there is no distinction between Gentile and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, foreigner, savage, slave, free man; on the contrary, in all, the Messiah (Christ) is everything)....put on therefore, as those elect of G-d, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, longsuffering. Therefore clothe yourselves with feelings of compassion and with kindness, humility, gentleness, and patience. Bear with one another...above all clothe yourselves with love." (Col. 3:10-14)
Matt 5:20 For I say to you, That except your righteousness will EXCEED the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you will in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.
Yeshua expounds on the demands of the Mosaic Law(instruction) and the height it was to keep from breaking it. It is obtained only through perfection. With our fallen nature we could not obtain the goal on our own. We need Yeshua. Without Yeshua we are incomplete. We glorify what Yeshua did as only He could have done because He had a Divine nature and did not receive a sin nature from any earthly father.
Many Pharisees had a tendency to soften the laws demands by focusing only on external obedience. Yeshua, in the following verses, shows that the law (instruction) calls for an internal conformity to the spirit of the law and not a mere compliance to the letter.
Matt 5:21 You have heard that it was said by them of old time, You will not kill (murder); and whosoever will kill (murder) will be in danger of the judgment:
Yeshua takes the instruction to the nth degree.
Matt 5:22 But I say to you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause will be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever will say to his brother, Raca, (empty-headed) will be in danger of the council: but whosoever will say, You fool, will be in danger of hell fire.(Gehenna)
Internal anger in ones heart without a cause (or correct cause) weather it does not ultimately lead to the death of another still carries the same kind of moral wrong as murder.