The corresponding letter to this chapter is Peh- mouth; open or closed.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:1-3 Now the P’lishtim Gatered their armies for battle; and they were Gatered at Sokhoh which belongs to Y’hudah, and they camped between Sokhoh and Azekah, in Efes-Damim. And Sha’ul and the men of Israel were gathered, and camped in the valley of Elah, and drew up in battle array to encounter the P’lishtim. And the P’lishtim stood on the mountain on one side while Israel stood on the mountain on the other side, with the valley between them.
I remember being in Israel and standing on the hill that the Israelites would have been on and then walking down to the stream and picturing the entire scene in my mind. If you have the opportunity to travel to Israel, I would like to encourage you to do so. It will really help you in your Bible study.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:4-7 Then a champion came out from the armies of the P’lishtim named Golyat, from Gat, whose height was six cubits and a span. And he had a bronze helmet on his head, and he was clothed with scale-armor which weighed five thousand shekels of bronze. He also had bronze greaves on his legs and a bronze javelin slung between his shoulders. And the shaft of his spear was like a weaver's beam, and the head of his spear weighed six hundred shekels of iron; his shield-carrier also walked before him.
Six cubits and a span – This is about 9 feet 9 inches. A cubit is about 18 inches and a span is about 9 inches. (Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm)
Five thousand shekels of bronze – about 125 lbs. We learned earlier that Sha’ul was a big man. He must have been to be able to wear this much armor.
Six hundred shekels of iron – about 15 lbs.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:8-10 And he stood and “SHOUTED” to the ranks of Israel, and said to them, "WHY DO YOU COME OUT TO DRAW UP IN BATTLE ARRAY? Am I not the P’lishtim and you servants of Sha’ul? Choose a man for yourselves and let him come down to me. If he is able to fight with me and kill me, then we will become your servants; but if I prevail against him and kill him, then you shall become our servants and serve us." Again the P’lishtim said, "I DEFY THE RANKS OF ISRAEL THIS DAY; GIVE ME A MAN THAT WE MAY FIGHT TOGETHER."
So no one in Israel wants to go man to man against the giant.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:11-16 When Sha’ul and all Israel heard these words of the P’lishtim, they were dismayed and greatly afraid. Now David was the son of the Efrati of Beit-Lechem in Y’hudah, whose name was Yishai, and he had eight sons. And Yishai was old in the days of Sha’ul, advanced in years among men. And the three older sons of Yishai had gone after Sha’ul to the battle. And the names of his three sons who went to the battle were Eliav the first-born, and the second to him Avinadav, and the third Shammah. And David was the youngest. Now the three oldest followed Sha’ul, but David went back and forth from Sha’ul to tend his father's flock at Beit-Lechem. And the P’lishtim came forward morning and evening for forty days, and took his stand.
David was not 100% in Sha’ul’s employ at this time. He would go home on occasion and tend to the flocks.
Forty is the number of testing and Israel had been tested for 40 days.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:17-22 Then Yishai said to David his son, "Take now for your brothers an ephah of this roasted grain and these ten loaves, and run to the camp to your brothers. Bring also these ten cuts of cheese to the commander of their thousand, and look into the welfare of your brothers, and bring back news of them. For Sha’ul and they and all the men of Israel are in the valley of Elah, fighting with the P’lishtim." So David arose early in the morning and left the flock with a keeper and took the supplies and went as Yishai had commanded him. And he came to the circle of the camp while the army was going out in battle array shouting the war cry. And Israel and the P’lishtim drew up in battle array, army against army. Then David left his baggage in the care of the baggage keeper, and ran to the battle line and entered in order to greet his brothers.
David arrives on the scene just as Golyat (Goliath) is coming again with his challenge.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:23-25 As he was talking with them, look, the champion, the P’lishtim from Gat named Golyat, was coming up from the army of the P’lishtim, and he spoke these same words; and David heard them. When all the men of Israel saw the man, they fled from him and were greatly afraid. And the men of Israel said, "Have you seen this man who is coming up? Surely he is coming up to defy Israel. And it will be that the king will enrich the man who kills him with great riches and will give him his daughter and make his father's house free in Israel." So David opened his mouth and starts to ask questions. This young man is the only one who is not afraid of the giant.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:26-27 Then David SPOKE (mouth) to the men who were standing by him, saying, "WHAT WILL BE DONE FOR THE MAN WHO KILLS THIS P’LISHTIM AND TAKES AWAY THE REPROACH FROM ISRAEL? FOR WHO IS THIS UNCIRCUMCISED P’LISHTIM, THAT HE SHOULD TAUNT THE ARMIES OF THE LIVING G-D?” And the people answered him in accord with this word, saying, "THIS WILL BE DONE FOR THE MAN WHO KILLS HIM.”
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:28 Now Eliav his oldest brother heard when he spoke to the men; and Eliav's anger burned against David and he said, "Why have you come down? And with whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your insolence and the wickedness of your heart; for you have come down in order to see the battle."
Eliav was acting like many brothers would against a younger brother. He thought of him as younger and probably thought of him as only his little brother and of not much use. He was even an OFFENSE to his brother. Again David like Yeshua was given little regard by many of his brothers. He is the stone which the builders rejected became the very corner stone and a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense.
1 Kefa (Peter) 2:7-10 This precious value, then, is for you who believe. But for those who disbelieve, "The stone which the builders rejected, this became the very corner stone," and, "A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense"; for they stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also appointed. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for G-d's own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; for you once were not a people, but now you are the people of G-d; you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.
At this time David was a nobody. G-d makes nobodies into some bodies. David was G-d’s choice to rule and to conquer.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:29-33 But David said, "WHAT HAVE I DONE NOW? WAS IT NOT JUST A QUESTION?" Then he turned away from him to another and said the same thing; and the people answered the same thing as before. When the words which David spoke were heard, they told them to Sha’ul, and he sent for him. And David said to Sha’ul, "Let no man's heart fail on account of him; your servant will go and fight with this P’lishtim." Then Sha’ul said to David, "You are not able to go against this P’lishtim to fight with him; for you are but a youth while he has been a warrior from his youth."
Don’t you just love it? Sha’ul too rejects David. He had little faith in David the type of Yeshua HaMashiach. So many have little faith in Yeshua as the Messiah who will come and fight against the nations. He is the stone that strikes the statue, (which Golyat is symbolic of here) in the scroll of Daniel that represents these nations and his kingdom will be set up, and never by destroyed.
Daniel 2:44-45 "And in the days of those kings the G-d of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever. "Inasmuch as you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands and that it crushed the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold, the great G-d has made known to the king what will take place in the future; so the dream is true, and its interpretation is trustworthy."
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:34-36 But David said to Sha’ul, "Your servant was tending his father's sheep. When a lion or a bear came and took a lamb from the flock, I went out after him and attacked him, and rescued it from his MOUTH; and when he rose up against me, I seized him by his beard and struck him and killed him. Your servant has killed both the lion and the bear; and this uncircumcised P’lishtim will be like one of them, since he has taunted the armies of the living G-d."
David cared about how others disrespected the army of Israel. How many nations do this today? How many try to taunt the army of Israel today?
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:37-39 And David said, "The L-RD who delivered me from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear, He will deliver me from the hand of this P’lishtim." And Sha’ul said to David, "Go, and may the L-RD be with you." Then Sha’ul clothed David with his garments and put a bronze helmet on his head, and he clothed him with armor. And David girded his sword over his armor and tried to walk, for he had not tested them. So David said to Sha’ul, "I cannot go with these, for I have not tested them." And David took them off.
Sometimes we must do things the unconventional way to succeed.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:40 And he took his stick in his hand and chose for himself five smooth stones from the brook, and put them in the shepherd's bag which he had, even in his pouch, and his sling was in his hand; and he approached the P’lishtim.
Some debate why he took five stones. One may be it may have taken more than one to kill him. One reason that is given is that Golyat had brothers who might want revenge after his death. Another may be he may have thought the P’lishtim might still attack afterward.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:41-43 Then the P’lishtim came on and approached David, with the shield-bearer in front of him. When the P’lishtim looked and saw David, he disdained him; for he was but a youth, and ruddy, with a handsome appearance. And the P’lishtim said to David, "AM I A DOG, THAT YOU COME TO ME WITH STICKS?" And the P’lishtim cursed David by his gods.
I never thought about this but David did conquer him with his wooden staff didn’t he? What do you think this represents?
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:44 The P’lishtim also said to David, "Come to me, and I will give your flesh to the birds of the sky and the beasts of the field."
This is an interesting statement because this is exactly what Yeshua does to the nations that try to attack Israel in the future.
Revelation 19:17-18 And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried out with a loud voice, saying to all the birds which fly in midheaven, "Come, assemble for the great supper of G-d; in order that you may eat the flesh of kings and the flesh of commanders and the flesh of mighty men and the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them and the flesh of all men, both free men and slaves, and small and great. "
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:45 Then David said to the P’lishtim, "You come to me with a sword, a spear, and a javelin, but I come to you in the name of the L-RD of hosts, the G-d of the armies of Israel, whom you have taunted.
Interestingly, it was a spear in which Yeshua was pierced with by the Roman Empire. Again in this case the type of Yeshua HaMashiach did not have to be wounded by a spear to bring about the symbolism here. The Roman Empire will be revived and become strong again in the future. Interestingly this is when Yeshua will return.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:46-47 This day the L-RD will deliver you up into my hands, and I will strike you down and remove your head from you. And I will give the dead bodies of the army of the P’lishtim this day to the birds of the sky and the wild beasts of the earth, that all the earth may know that there is a G-d in Israel, and that all this assembly may know that the L-RD does not deliver by sword or by spear; for the battle is the L-rd's and He will give you into our hands. "
The type does what the real deal will do in the future as already stated.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:48-51 Then it happened when the P’lishtim rose and came and drew near to meet David, that David ran quickly toward the battle line to meet the P’lishtim. And David put his hand into his bag and took from it a stone and slung it, and struck the P’lishtim on his forehead. And the stone sank into his forehead, so that he fell on his face to the ground. Thus David prevailed over the P’lishtim with a sling and a stone, and he struck the P’lishtim and killed him; but there was no sword in David's hand. Then David ran and stood over the P’lishtim and took his sword and drew it out of its sheath and killed him, and cut off his head with it. When the P’lishtim saw that their champion was dead, they fled.
This is why your mother told you not to throw stones. Positioned correctly the stone was lethal.
Sh’mu’el Alef 17:52-58 And the men of Israel and Y’hudah arose and shouted and pursued the P’lishtim as far as the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the slain P’lishtim lay along the way to Shaaraim, even to Gat and Ekron. And the sons of Israel returned from chasing the P’lishtim and plundered their camps. Then David took the P’lishtim's head and brought it to Yerushalayim, but he put his weapons in his tent. Now when Sha’ul saw David going out against the P’lishtim, he said to Avner the commander of the army, "Avner, whose son is this young man?" And Avner said, "By your life, O king, I do not know." And the king said, "You inquire whose son the youth is." So when David returned from killing the P’lishtim, Avner took him and brought him before Sha’ul with the P’lishtim's head in his hand. And Sha’ul said to him, "Whose son are you, young man?" And David answered, "I am the son of your servant Yishai the Beit-Lechemite."
David was and is only a human king. The type is not completely like the real deal. Whose son is Yeshua, the real deal whom David is a type of? Surely you know!
Mark 15:37-39 And Yeshua uttered a loud cry, and breathed His last. And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. And when the centurion, who was standing right in front of Him, saw the way He breathed His last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of G-d!"
Mattityahu (Matthew) 27:54 Now the centurion, and those who were with him keeping guard over Yeshua, when they saw the earthquake and the things that were happening, became very frightened and said, "Truly this was the Son of G-d!"
Luke 4:41 And demons also were coming out of many, crying out and saying, "You are the Son of G-d!" And rebuking them, He would not allow them to speak, because they knew Him to be the Messiah.