Read Exodus 25:23-30, 37:10-16; Leviticus 24:5-9
This table stood on the north side of the holy place. It was made of acacia wood overlaid with gold and was 2 cubits long 1 cubit wide, and 1 1/2 cubits tall. On each corner were gold rings for carrying the table. On its top were 2 crowns (boarders) one on the outside edge of the table and one a hand's breath in, to hold the bread into position.
The wood symbolizes Yeshua being born of a woman, his humanity. It was overlaid with gold, which symbolizes His being conceived by Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) and thus His divine nature. The crown around the rim tells us He was crowned with glory and honor.
Hebrews 2:9 But we see Yeshua (Jesus), who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; that he by the grace of G-d should taste death for every man.
There were 2 stacks of bread. Each stack contained 6 loafs of bread, one for each of the 12 tribes of Israel. Each loaf was made from 2 omers of wheat flour, which had been passed through 11 sieves. The cakes were anointed in the middle with oil, in the form of a cross. :~) Jewish tradition tells us that they were each 5 handbreadths broad and 10 handbreadths long, but turned up at the end, they were 2 handbreadths on each side, to resemble the Ark of the Covenant.
Between the rows, two bowls with pure incense were placed. This symbolized that the life, which is in His presence, is one of praise.
The name "showbread" is not a good translation. It was called the "Bread of His Presence". It should be noted that the bread was NOT placed in the temple to feed Israel's G-d, as various pagan religions do in their shrines and temples. It was to acknowledge that the 12 tribes were sustained under the watchful eye and care of their L-rd. The loaves were all the same size, revealing that G-d makes just as much provision for the small tribes as for the large tribes. G-d does not give by measure according to the riches of His grace.
There were several golden utensils kept at the table of showbread. They included dishes, spoons, bowls, and covers.
Each Sabbath the bread was replaced and the priests ate the old bread.
The flour is a type of the beautiful white, smooth life of Yeshua in which there was no sin, or evil. His life was pure grace, pure love, pure holiness and pure beauty.
The bread symbolizes Yeshua HaMashiach. He is the bread, which came down from heaven.
John 6:32-35 Then Yeshua (Jesus) said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moshe (Moses) gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of G-d is He which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. Then said they unto him, L-rd, evermore give us this bread. And Yeshua (Jesus) said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
John 6:48-51 I am that bread of life. Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die. I am the living bread, which came down from heaven: if any man eats of this bread, he shall live forever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
Just as bread provides for our physical needs Yeshua's atoning death provides for our spiritual needs. The priests, by eating the showbread every Sabbath, typified Yeshua's provision of our spiritual needs. This same principal (a priest representing Mashiach) is seen in the animal sacrifices, after which a priest ate a portion of an offering he ministered, so that together both he and the offering could fully typify Mashiach as both priest and sacrifice.